^ all of this is gold.
I'm so sorry to hear that this place has so much toxicity. That's going to be awful for your long term happiness and you definitely need to get out.
In my experience recruiters will ask you about why you left, but it's up to you to have a good explanation. Also, a year is a good amount of time, but if you can stick it out a little longer (maybe a year and a half) it'll make you look less flighty.
In the meantime, can you maybe take half days or lighter projects so you can reset? Maybe even a vacation?